Dating persian coins
4.5 g) and then the new Islamic dinar (4.25 g), issued in Damascus, North Africa, and Spain but not in Persia. The new dirhams were first issued at twenty-five or thirty mints, including most of those where Arab-Sasanian silver coins had previously been struck, as well as many new ones.With establishment of a new eastern capital, Wāseṭ, in 83-84/702-03, all minting for Persia was concentrated there.
Owing to civil unrest (e.g., the revolt of ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān b.Standardization also simplified public finance, particularly the collection of taxes and tribute from widely differing regions. By the time of Pērōz (459-84), however, the Roman ).In order to maintain the standard of its coins and a degree of equilibrium between supply and demand for money, each state attempts to exercise a monopoly over minting. These coins also became debased, and by the time of the Sasanian conquest in 224 C. they contained hardly 1 g of metal (Sellwood, 1980, pp. Ardašīr I (224-40) continued to mint the debased Arsacid tetradrachm of billon, an alloy of copper with a small amount of silver, as well as introducing fractional silver coins, specifically the half-drachma and the was minted until the end of the reign of Kavād I (488-96, 498-531), becoming gradually debased to less than 0.3 g and circulating mainly as token currency (Göbl, 1971, p. A major innovation in coin technology occurred in the early Sasanian period: The first thin-flan coins, cut from rolled sheet metal, were issued.Ašʿaṯ, q.v., against Ḥajjāj in 81/701), coins of Sasanian type continued to be issued at certain mints in Fārs, Kermān, and Sīstān, but by 84/703 these mints had either been closed down or converted to production of the new dirhams.The latest known Arab-Sasanian coin, an extraordinary issue, is dated 85/704-05, though some mints in the east, still outside Muslim control, continued producing imitation Arab-Sasanian types for perhaps another century.The reform included introduction of a new weight standard for dirhams.
Persian dirhams in the period after the conquest had been struck according to the late Sasanian weight standard, about 4 g, which was identified by the new Arab rulers of Persia as the of the western caliphate, the standard for the gold coinage of the time, first the Byzantine solidus (ca.
Many Arab-Sasanian dirhams have small counterstamps or countermarks, probably applied by neighboring non-Islamic kingdoms in the east, in order to revalidate the coins for local circulation.
Similar counterstamps also appear on some dirhams struck during the Omayyad caliphate (41-132/661-750), suggesting that they were applied mainly in the 8th century (Gaube, pp. In the 7th and 8th centuries the Transoxanian kingdoms also struck their own coins, mainly of Sasanian type but with local inscriptions and artistic styles.
In 72/692 minting began at the caliphal capital, Damascus.
The coins evolved rapidly from imitations of Byzantine (gold and copper) and Sasanian (silver) issues, to coins with experimental Muslim images, to purely epigraphic dinars, dirhams, and , the Byzantine copper coin) with Muslim religious inscriptions in Arabic, introduced by the caliph ʿAbd-al-Malek (75-86/685-705) in 77/697 (Bates, 1986).
The Achaemenid rulers, for example, customarily had precious metals melted down and poured into jars; the molds were subsequently broken and the bullion stored. At first the satraps and city governors also minted coins in both gold and silver, some bearing Greek letters next to the Achaemenid archer on the obverse (Hill, pp. At any given time the number of mints in actual operation was smaller.