Dating stephanie petrosini
The two groups demonstrated similar abilities to learn from the consequences of their own actions and to imitate new actions that were instrumental to the achievement of a tangible goal.Children with WS, unlike those with ASD, increased their attention and imitative learning performance when the model acted in a socially engaging manner. Findings to date suggest that young children actively create and respond to learning opportunities in their environment using two fundamental mechanisms: social learning (learning from the social environment via observation and imitation of others’ behavior) and non-social learning (learning from the physical environment via trial and error) .
These findings leave open the question of how the unique social phenotype in WS affects development of social and non-social learning propensities and abilities.We hypothesized that while the groups would perform similarly in tasks tapping non-social, instrumental dimensions of learning, the WS group would show superior performance in those based on social processes and motives.The participants were 36 preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; mean age = 45.5 months, SD = 11.2 months, range = 29.2–74.1) and 21 peers with William syndrome (WS; mean age = 52.5 months, SD = 17.2 months, range = 26.7–78.8) who participated in four experiments.The sunny event is a regional IRONMAN Tri Club Championship race, attracting clubs from all over the state with its podium ceremony, pre race barbecue, and tent city celebration.And for pint sized triathletes ages 6 15, an IRONKIDS race takes place the day before the main event giving young triathletes a chance to enjoy the sport and qualify for the national IRONKIDS event held in Des Moines, Iowa, every August.Its three loop course makes it one of the best races on the 70.3 circuit for spectators, who have multiple chances to cheer on their loved ones, all while enjoying two playgrounds, water slides, a kiddie pool, food vendors and IRONMAN village.
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The diagnoses of ASD were previously made by community-based healthcare professionals and confirmed for the study using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS 2, ) administered by a clinician with demonstrated research reliability in the use of this measure.
Exclusion criteria for the ASD group included the presence of uncorrected hearing or vision impairment, and the presence of a major medical problem.
We employed, for the first time, an eye-tracking paradigm that permitted a direct examination of the link between atypical attention deployment and imitation performance in young children with ASD and WS.