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All summons, warrants, forms, applications, petitions, judgments were made in Persianized Urdu throughout the Hindi-speaking provinces. It contains quite a large number of Persian words some of which have never been used in any other Hindi work. Gorakh Nath is said to have lived in the 11th century but the extant bards are certainly not all his, nor does the language show signs of antiquity. He lived to see eleven kings on the throne of Delhi and was a courtier of seven of them whose accounts he has given in beautiful Persian masnams. It is, however, a remarkable fact that although the works mentioned above have been affected by later times and ^their origi- nality tampered with and injured, they contain very few Persian vocables or literary traits.


in hama mazdmin-i-Farasi ki bekdr uftaddarid dar reqhtd qhwud bakar babar. For instance, in their grammatical works the technical terms — isma (not nam) for noun, sifat (not vishe§an) for adjective, harfa (not ak§ar) for letter, jam'a (not bahuvacan) for plural), — have been freely employed. This fact was regretfully noted by Tassi, Keay, Growse, Grierson and even the Sadar Diwani Adalat and the Revenue Board. In some, especially his pahel U (riddles) and do-sokhmas (homo nymous saying,), he has exhibited _ certain linguistic ££•»*£ than any literary excellences. It has to be re membered that Khusro's Hindi poetry is neither representative nor « That Hindi had no, yet accepted any foreign «*»*? He writes in his '•Masnav, Khvawmah \ Z you ponder well, you will not find the Hindi words (language) ■ sted on keeping Hmd s V very near to Urdu and the latter tned to popular - Sansknt c vocabularies. D.) were generous and free-m.nded, fn" moreover, the, kept their language close to the spoken angua «e Mahabir Prasad Dvivedi and writers of his age U 90 °-' 921 . He and a large number of British imperialists including Shakespeare, Fallon, Piatts and Duncan Forbes have written their Hindustani dictionaries and grammars either in Persian script or in Roman script with a biased regard for Arabo-Persian words and intentional disregard for Sans* kritic and popular forms. other poets are men- tioned as representatives of the genuine Hindustani style. The publication division of the Fort William College was responsible for bringing, out text books . Although the East India Company continued Nagari script along with the Persian script on its coins, the general policy of the Company was to prefer Arabo-Persian words and treat Hindi as separate from Urdu. The very style of -his Uk* Bm 'shows that he motive was to produce an easy aid to learning Hind, through Perskn. I hope it will serve as a record and a guide to young scholars who ever desire to survey this region of a very great historical, cultural and linguistic importance. •' The Cerent abbreviations found in works of this nature have been used in this book also. Previously, through the Muslim period, the word^— 'Hindi' or 'Hindvi' (neither 'Hindustani' nor 'Urdu') was used in official references. Here are some examples of adjectives used idiomatically and literally translated into Hindi from Persian. We find poets like Ayodhya Singh Upa- dhyay 'Hanaudh' using both styles in his works. o Fpersian element was again retarted by mystic poets (1920-1936) They practically excluded even the most common Persian wo d, from their poetry. Braj Bhasha had its own traditions which were tenaciously followed throughout the ages. That, of course, is a general view of the whole picture. Traces of Persian influence are .rapidly disappearing from Hindi, and a thorough evaluation of that in- fluence must be made in the present generation when scholars know- ing both Persian and Hindi are easily available. It tells a tale and attempts to explore the possi- bilities of an interesting field of research. intended to store up- Persian elements which during the last 800 years have found their way into Hindi language and literature. This uncertainty is notable in transhtera- tn herein. It ma* Lowever, be It ai or il and a6 or « have to be understock imposed vowels, while 3 and =» are single vowels as m Eng '•and H. A minute between two consonants means that the consonants are eonjune, in pronunciation but separate m Wri The spellings of proper names are traditional and not phonetic. Urdu under British patro- nage,' and Reaction [13-16]; 1.7. In his article *The_ name 'Hindustani' was given to the language of India by ' the British. Fiction-writers of the sam period had, however, mostly shifted from Urdu, and ^ «he«fore they adopted U du style in Hindi. Even Jayasi, Nabi, Mu- barak, Alam, Rahim, Raskhan, Raslin and many other Muslim poets who were educated and brought up in Persian atmosphere, wrote their works in the form which is essentially Hindi. It was, therefore, politically expedient for the British to encourage Muslim institutions. These, too must have natura By and unavoidably found their way into the language of Indian writer,, especially in the north-western provinces.

The Y soon discovered that it was easier to win over the Muslims Than to appear the Hindus. Vide his Hindi Sakitya ka Alocanaimak iiihas\ Allahabad, pp. Such has also been the fate of the Lorak aur Cauda, a love- «epic of Daud who flourished in the time of Feroze Shah Tughlak. (95), quiver, tejiy (tazl, 21)*, Arabian horse, almost all of which "The figures in brackets refer to the numbered metres in the Bisal Dev Rasau, Prayag, 1953, edited by Gupta and Nahata. On a close search into the poetry of about a dozen authentic po*s we could obtain only such words as Wmi» (command g J me (carpets), h Srini (surprise), jahar (poison), kigat (paper\ kh An E' (courtiers , Wkar (army), snahammad (Mohammad , maradd (men), ms An (banner), rakam (amount), sahar town), ^ (gun), turak (Turk), etc.

It is, anyhow, a plain matter of fact that Urdu literature and Urdu language as a form of speech developed under royal patronage and under the schematic guidance of interested classes.

Here they founded a new school of Urdu poetry which flourished greatly under *Chandrabali Pande : Mughal Badshahon ki Hindi, Kashi 1997v., pp. Urdu has since made rapid progress especially as a schismatic move- ment and a distinct form of language lexically.

Administrative— military, administrative units, officials, judicial, executive [25-29] ; 3. The Fort William College was founded in 1800 by Lord Wellesley under the principalship of John Gilchrist who was a great scholar of Persian and Arabic. The largest number of Persian words in this period are avatbtn Amir Ihusro's poetry.

1.6, BRITISH PATRONAGE 14 PERSIAN INFLUENCE The earliest gazettes, journals and newspapers were in Urdu, and even in Persian. The colleges established at Delhi, Patna and Fort William also encouraged Urdu. These observations fully corroborate our remarks made earlier in Sections 1.3 and 1.7 4 A 7.

He said that Urdu was hardly 50 years old, but it had been allowed to encroach upon the rights of a legitimitate language.. Now there were extremist tendencies and the Muslims of Hindi provinces claimed Urdu as -a symbol of Muslim culture. The literary style ol Soli I now matured, and the percentage of Pecan vocabu- laries is extremely insignificant. Amir Khusro wrote paheli S) mukarrds^ sakhunas, do-sakhunas, nisbats and dhakosalas.